Texas Military Forces Historical Sketch
Although they had fought bravely and determinedly for what they thought was right, the Texans, as did other citizens of the Confederate States, returned to their homes to face a problem even more complexing and discouraging than the ones on the battlefields. During the days of Reconstruction, Texans suffered an unjust fate, the same as their other Southern brothers, despite the attempts of some Federal officials to be just and to expedite the recovery of the South.
Under the plan of "reconstruction" which President Andrew Johnson unsuccessfully attempted to carry out in the Southern States, a constitutional convention met at Austin, and in April, 1866, completed its labors. On June 28, a general election was held at which James W. Throckmorton was elected governor. He was inaugurated in August, 1866, and on July 30, 1867, was removed by General P. H. Sheridan, Commander of the Fifth Military District with headquarters at New Orleans. From that date to February, 1870, Texas was under military rule, with provisional governors appointed by Army commanders and the State was without a legislative body. Naturally, under these conditions, volunteer organizations, unless allied with the Union authorities, were not permitted.
There was enacted during this period, though, a measure establishing the State Police under the command of the Adjutant General. This measure caused more general dissatisfaction during the administration of Governor Edmund Davis than any other. Some of the officers and many of the men of this force were without character and of unsavory reputation, while a number of the sergeants and privates were Negroes, who when armed and clothed with power were viewed by most Texans as arrogant, domineering and vindictive. James Davidson, ex-United States officer of volunteers, was the commander of the force and Adjutant General. He later defaulted to the extent of $30,000 and fled the State.